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Colonization of America

It is believed that America was inhabited by hunters of buffalos and mammoths. They arrived, following herds of animals, from present Siberia to Beringia – the territory of shoaling waters of the Chukchi and the Bering Seas. Later, as a result of glaciers’ melting, the level of the sea rose and about 10 thousand years ago Beringia was flooded. The earliest archaeological monuments of Alaska that date to the period of 13-14 thousand years ago were discovered on a small territory in the valley of Tanana River and its tributaries Nenana and Tatlanika (west of the town of Fairbanks).

14-15 thousand years ago inhabitants of Beringia managed to penetrate to the south of the glaciers that separated them from the main lands of the New World. The fact that Indians came from Asia is proved by the results of the genetic analysis – in America the same genetic lines as in Asia are represented. Even visual comparison of the appearance of Indians and, for example, the Chinese, the Germans and Africans leaves no doubt that they look more like the Chinese. The first inhabitants of America, however, as well as some South American Indians, still resemble more the inhabitants of Oceania and even Australia. Although, due to the inflow of new groups of migrants the extent of Mongoloid features grew. Findings of archaeologists also prove to the fact that the oldest American cultures are in general similar to the cultures of Siberia. On most of the North American territory clovis is considered the earliest archaeological culture. This culture existed 13.5 – 12 thousand years ago. The earliest monuments of central Alaska are approximately one thousand years older. The ancestors of the creators of clovis must have traveled south from Alaska following the ice-free inter-glacier corridor along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. The traces of the first appearance of man in the New World are dated by archaeologists with the help of radiocarbon measurements. The question of settlement of the New World is also investigated by specialists in the sphere of linguistics, physical anthropology and population genetics. 

The north-west of the Canadian Arctic archipelago is so austere that it was never inhabited by people. East Arctic is more favorable or life. Ancient Eskimos, the northernmost inhabitants of America not only developed the coast of Baffin Island and West Greenland as early as 4500 years ago, but also reached northern Greenland, i.e. the closest to the North Pole areas of land. 

       
Mother with child.
Greenland. The Eskimo. V. Talbitser. 1905
Indian child.
USA. Early 20th cent.
  Indian child.
USA. Early 20th cent.
       
       
 Indian of the Wild West Headman "Last Horse", USA   Pikes of the chidadn type - the earliest in the New World. About 13.5 thousand years ago. Central Alaska, Nenana culture.
       
     
Pikes from Mesa settlement, Northwest Alaska, 12-13 thousand yeras ago. The objects belong to North Paleoindian tradition, possibly related to Clovis culture. Drawing of a pike of the Clovis culture.   Bering Sea - area of ancinet Beringia and the "path" of the New World population