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Catalogue of the Exhibition


    
1. Bark cloth piece (ahu).
Mulberry tree bark.
Tahiti.
Presumably acquired either between 17.08.1773 and 1.09.1773 or between 22.04.1774 and 14.05.1774.
Probably, a cloak belonging to a noble man from Tahiti.

2, 3. Fishhook with a fishing line.
Fiber, sea shell.
Tahiti.
Acquired between 12.08.1777 and 8.12.1777.

4. Bark cloth piece (ahu).
Mulberry tree bark.
Tahiti.
Presumably acquired either between 17.08 and 1.09.1773 or between 22.04.1774 and 14.05.1774.
Probably, this cloth was used as a dress. 

5. Chest apron (ahu parau?) - a part of mourning dress.
Fiber, mother-of-pearl shell.
Tahiti.
Acquired between 12.04.1777 and 8.12.1777.
This item is a part of complicated mourning dress, which as a rule included no less than 11 pieces. Usually dresses like this one were put on by noble relatives of the deceased on their way to the burying-place.

6. Bark cloth piece (ahu).
Ficus bark.
Tahiti.
Presumably acquired either between 17.08 and 1.09.1773 or between 22.04.1774 and 14.05.1774.
Possibly, a warrior's dress.

7, 8. Breast ornament or rear cover (ta'umi).
 Reed stalks (?), fiber, feather, mother-of-pearl, shark teeth.
 Tahiti.
 Acquired between 12.08.1777 and 8.12.1777.
 There are several versions of how such items could be used:
    1. As pectoral armor
    2. As pectoral and dorsal elements of sacerdotal vestment, as can be gathered from the reproduction of the drawing by W. Hodges and the engraving by S. Parkinson.

9. Basket (kato mosi kaka).
 Coconut fibers, veins of coconut leaves.
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.

10. Horizontal nose flute (fangufangu).
 Bamboo.
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired presumably between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.
Piece of bamboo closed at both ends by natural nodes and provided with six holes burnt in it; when playing, one would take the instrument to one's nose, hold it horizontally and blow with one nostril (the other one kept closed) into the last hole on the right or on the left, adjusting the sound by alternately closing and opening the remaining five holes with five fingers of one's other hand.

11. Head rest (kali).
 Wood.
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.

12, 13. Comb (helu). 
 Midribs and veins of coconut leaves.
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.

14. Girdle (kafa).
 Veins of coconut leaves.
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.

15. Wrapping overskirt.
 Hibiscus Leaf (?).
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.
Men probably wore such skirts on solemn occasions. The skirt was secured above the waist with a girdle similar to the one exhibited here as No. 14 in the way, which can be gathered from the reproduction of D. Webber's engraving.

16. Club ('akau tau, povai, apa'apai).
 Wood.
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.
These clubs-maces, richly decorated with carving, belonged in all probability to the chiefs. The illustrations in carving depict certain episodes of Tongan mythology in a highly refined way, combining both complicated plot and complex ornament; the style is known as "remote background".

17. Fight/dance club ('akau tau).
 Wood.
 Tonga Islands.
 Acquired between 28.04.1777 and 17.06. 1777.
These heavy paddle-like clubs could be used in close combat both as cut and thrust weapon; however, they could also serve as a concomitant attribute in war dances of Tonga men, who performed with these clubs various incredibly shift and simultaneous combat movements.

18. Sharkhook (makau mano). Wood, ivory, fiber.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
Sharks were exploited for meat, moreover, shark-hunting was a usual entertainment, a kind of sports for local aristocracy. In such cases human meat was used as bait, whereas the fluid products of putrefying corpse were the lure.

19. Game stick for the no'a game (no'a). 
 Wood, dog hair, fiber, bird skins with feathers adhering, feather.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
Two teams of five players each are sitting on the ground opposite each other with five piles of tapa between them. Team leader is clutching a stone in his right hand and is hiding it beneath one of the piles, and the point is to guess, which one it was. Another team leader should strike the chosen pile with the fleecy side of the stick. If the choice is right, his team gets one point and it is his turn to hide the stone. Game ends when one of the teams scores 10 points.

20. Game stone ('ulumaika).
 Basalt.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
Several sticks poked into the ground form a long (up to 40 m.) and narrow (2.5 cm.) corridor. The objective of the game is to fling this stone into the corridor so that it doesn't hit any of the sticks.

21. Feather cape.
 Fiber, plant leaves, pieces of bird skins with feathers adhering, feather.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
Only men, vested with high social position, could wear garments, richly decorated with feather (capes, collars, helmets, helmet bands etc.). The "lower" chiefs wore capes with white feathers, those of higher rank preferred red and yellow colors. The cape covered the back, leaving the shoulders and neck open; the strings were placed on one's breast under the right collar-bone, the fingers could be put through the buttonholes on the edge of lapels and hem, as depicted on the reproduction of Webber's engraving.

22. Feather collar.
 Fiber, feather.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
These collars covered the entire upper part of one's body. The colors of this collar show rather high position of its owner.

23. Fan.
 Wood, tapa, feather, pieces of bird skins.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
Such fans were not only used in accordance with their purpose, but their function was to indicate the rank of their owners as well.

24. Feathered helmet (mahi'ole).
 Feather, fiber, stalks of Ligodium (?).
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.

25. Feather helmet band ((lei).
 Fiber, feather.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.

26. Dagger (?).
 Wood, fiber.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.

27. Fighting knife (pappeneeheomano).
 Wood, shark teeth, fiber.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.

28. Feather cape.
 Fiber, feather.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.

29. Raw materials used in featherwork (hulumanu).
 Feather, fiber.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
Feathers of different birds were exploited for producing feather articles: little feathers were taken from small forest birds, whereas domestic roosters and sea birds provided larger plumes. There were professional hunters, who were familiar with the habits of wild birds and knew their habitat. The fowlers resorted to various methods including net, noose and special adhesive sap called 'papala' (Pisonia unbellifera); when hunting sea birds, the Hawaii fowlers used to kill them with stones at their nesting-places. As the stock of feathers grew, small feathers were usually attached to bunches of fiber and had been preserved in such tufts until they could be used.

30. Feathered helmet (mahi'ole).
 Feather, bark cloth, stalks of liana.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.

31. Feather helmet band (lei).
 Fiber, bark cloth, feather.
 Hawaii.
 Acquired either between 18.01.1778 and 2.02.1778 or between 30.11.1778 and 15.03.1779.
D. Samwell, the physician of Cook's expedition, reported on the warriors of Kauai Island the following: "These people wear thick rolls of feathers around their helmets... thus providing the impression of rich and elegant turban".

32. Предмет неизвестного назначения.
Растительные волокна, перо.
Гавайские о-ва.
Время приобретения: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.

33. Тесло в коленчатой рукояти.
Дерево, базальт, растительные волокна.
Гавайские о-ва.
Время приобретения: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.

34. Колотушка (hohoa) для отбивания луба при изготовлении тапы.
Дерево.
Гавайские о-ва.
Время приобретения: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.
При изготовлении материи из древесного луба использовалась кора нескольких видов деревьев. Ее отмачивали в соленой воде, затем снимали тонкие внутренние слои и расплющивали их колотушками на специальных "наковальнях". В результате длительной механической обработки ширина исходного сырья увеличивалась в 6-8 раз. Колотушки представленного типа использовались на второй стадии обработки луба.

35, 36, 37, 38. Образцы материи ('kapa).
Луб бумажной шелковицы.
Гавайские о-ва.
Время приобретения предположительно: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.

39. Ожерелье.
Семена растений, раковина морского моллюска.
Гавайские о-ва.
Время приобретения, предположительно: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.

40. Браслет женский (kupe'e-ho'okalakala).
Клыки кабана, растительные волокна.
Гавайские о-ва
Время приобретения: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.

41. Девичье украшение (для головы и шеи) (lei).
Растительные волокна, перо.
Гавайские о-ва.
Время приобретения предположительно: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.

42. Циновка (makaloa).
Растительное волокно.
Гавайские о-ва.
Время приобретения предположительно: с 18 января по 2 февраля 1778 г. или с 30 ноября 1778 г. по 15 марта 1779 г.

Гравюры по рисункам Уильяма Ходжеса*


43. Ту - один из таитянских вождей.
Гравюра резцом Джона Холла по рисунку,
созданному между 26.VIII-1.IX.1773 г.
44. Ойдиди с о-ва Борабора, проживавший на Таити.
Гравюра резцом Джеймса Колдволла по рисунку, созданному между 13.IX.1773 и 4.VI.1774 г.

45. Тонганец Аттаха.
Гравюра резцом Джона Кейза Шервина по рисунку, созданному между 3 - 8. X.1773 г.

46. Новозеландский вождь.
Гравюра резцом по рисунку, созданному 22.X.1773 г.

47. Туземка острова Пасхи.
Гравюра резцом Джеймса Колдволла по рисунку,
созданному между 14 - 16.III.1774 г.

48. Хону, вождь острова Санта-Кристина
(Маркизские острова).

Гравюра резцом Джона Холла по рисунку, созданному
между 8 - 12.IV.1774 г.

49. Туземец острова Танна.
Гравюра резцом Джеймса I Базире по рисунку, созданному между 5 - 21.VIII.1774 г.

50. Новокаледонец.
Гравюра резцом Франсуа Жермена Алиамета по рисунку, созданному между 5 - 13.IX.1774 г.

51. Огнеземелец.
Гравюра резцом по рисунку, созданному 25.XII.1774 г.

* История повторной находки этих девяти гравюр, их атрибуция и характеристика
см. Иванова, 2000. С. 140-152.