Further development of the method
Gerasimov’s method has been elaborated by his students in two directions:
- more accurate reconstruction of separate facial features, and statistical testing of the results on large samples;
- introduction of new research techniques
Based on 1,500 radiographs with clear contours of both soft tissues and the cranial base, a more accurate method of nose reconstruction was elaborated. A distinct link was established between nose width and the distance between the canines.
The following relationships were demonstrated:
- between the shape of the supraorbital margin and that of the upper eyelid fold;
- between the height of the pigmented part of the upper lip and that of the crowns of the medial incisors;
- between mouth width and that of the dental arch;
- position of the eyebrows relative to that of the supraorbital margin and supraorbital relief.
In recent years, a technique for assessing the placement of the eyeballs has been finally elaborated, and a regularity in the location of hair border has been established. At present, regularities in the position of ears and of the nose tip, and in eyebrow shape are being evaluated.
Layered image, obtained by stereoscopic photography. Computer graphics.
Instead of radiography, which endangers health, ultrasonic echolocation was used, which has extended the possibilities for evaluating the thickness of soft tissues in vivo.
Also, a contact-free method of stereoscopic photography was elaborated, whereby the head is photographed by a special camera in many views. This method combined with ultrasonic sounding of the cranium provides a possibility of obtaining transects of the face at any level.
On that basis, the first computer-generated 3D reconstructions were obtained. At present, a software for a documental facial reconstruction from the cranium is being jointly designed by the Laboratory of Plastic Reconstruction and the Federal Center for Forensic Examination.